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Mock TOEFL iBT Exam




REGARDING PREPARATION FOR THIS MOCK TOEFL iBT EXAM

Please adjust your document view so that the exam appears as one continuous page without gaps between pages.


To complete this exam you will need:

  • blank sheets of paper to take any notes that you desire

  • a pen and/or pencil

  • a way to time the reading section 54 minutes (Perhaps setting a timer with an alarm would work well.)

  • a way to time the writing section 50 minutes (Perhaps setting a timer with an alarm would work well.)

  • a way to record your voice

  • a paper answer sheet for the reading section: 3 readings with 10 questions each

  • a paper answer sheet for the listening section 5 listenings with 5 or 6 questions each


When the exam is finished, carefully transfer the answers for each section to a single digital record or other type of record., The reading section consists of 3 readings, each with 10 questions. The listenikng section consists of 5 listening with 5 or 6 questions for each listening. The speaking section consists of 4 tasks, so you should have an audio recording of your vioce fore each task. The writing section consists of two co comitions. .

MOCK TOEFL iBT EXAM



Reading Section

YOU WILL NEED TO TIME THIS SECTION. YOU MAY USE A TIMER WITH AN ALARM SET AT 54 MINUTES.

54 minutes total.

3 readings

10 questions per reading

18 minutes each reading/question set


Reading 1

Directions: Read the passage. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set. (These instructions are misleading. If you use 20 minutes for Set 1 and Set 2, you will only have 16 minutes for Set 3.)


The Rise of Teotihuacán

Paragraph 1

The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200 –100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central America and Mexico).


Paragraph 2

How did this tremendous development take place, and why did it happen in the Teotihuacán Valley? Among the main factors are Teotihuacán’s geographic location on a natural trade route to the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsidian1 resources in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley’s potential for extensive irrigation. The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint , for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and foresightedness of Teotihuacán’s elite, and, finally, the impact of natural disasters, such as the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.


Paragraph 3

This last factor is at least circumstantially implicated in Teotihuacán’s rise. Prior to 200 B.C., a number of relatively small centers coexisted in and near the Valley of Mexico. Around this time, the largest of these centers, Cuicuilco, was seriously affected by a volcanic eruption, with much of its agricultural land covered by lava. With Cuicuilco eliminated as a potential rival, any one of a number of relatively modest towns might have emerged as a leading economic and political power in Central Mexico. The archaeological evidence clearly indicates, though, that Teotihuacán was the center that did arise as the predominant force in the area by the first century A.D.


Paragraph 4

It seems likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources , along with the city elite’s ability to recognize their potential , gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley, like many other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in obsidian. The hard volcanic stone was a resource that had been in great demand for many years, at least since the rise of the Olmecs (a people who flourished between 1200 and 400 B.C.), and it apparently had a secure market. Moreover, recent research on obsidian tools found at Olmec sites has shown that some of the obsidian obtained by the Olmecs originated near Teotihuacán. Teotihuacán obsidian must have been recognized as a valuable commodity for many centuries before the great city arose.


Paragraph 5

Long-distance trade in obsidian probably gave the elite residents of Teotihuacán access to a wide variety of exotic goods, as well as a relatively prosperous life. Such success may have attracted immigrants to Teotihuacán. In addition, Teotihuacán’s elite may have consciously attempted to attract new inhabitants. It is also probable that as early as 200 B.C. Teotihuacán may have achieved some religious significance and its shrine (or shrines) may have served as an additional population magnet. Finally, the growing population was probably fed by increasing the number and size of irrigated fields.


Paragraph 6

The picture of Teotihuacán that emerges is a classic picture of positive feedback among obsidian mining and working, trade, population growth, irrigation, and religious tourism. The thriving obsidian operation, for example, would necessitate more miners, additional manufacturers of obsidian tools, and additional traders to carry the goods to new markets. All this led to increased wealth, which in turn would attract more immigrants to Teotihuacán. The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite.


1 obsidian: a type of volcanic glasslike rock used for manufacturing tools and ceremonial objects


Directions: Answer the questions.


1. In paragraph 1, each of the following is mentioned as a feature of the city of Teotihuacán between A.D. 150 and 700 EXCEPT

A regularly arranged streets

B several administrative centers spread across the city

C many manufacturing workshops

D apartment complexes


2. The word “ingenuity” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to

A ambition

B sincerity

C faith

D cleverness


3. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 2 as a main factor in the development of Teotihuacán?

A The presence of obsidian in the Teotihuacán Valley

B The potential for extensive irrigation of Teotihuacán Valley lands

C A long period of volcanic inactivity in the Teotihuacán Valley

D Teotihuacán’s location on a natural trade route


4. What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Cuicuilco prior to 200 B.C.?

A It was a fairly small city until that date.

B It was located outside the Valley of Mexico.

C It emerged rapidly as an economical and political center.

D Its economy relied heavily on agriculture.


5. Which of the following allowed Teotihuacán to have “a competitive edge over its neighbors”?

A A well-exploited and readily available commodity

B The presence of a highly stable elite class

C Knowledge derived directly from the Olmecs about the art of toolmaking

D Scarce natural resources in nearby areas such as those located in what are now the Guatemalan and Mexican highlands


6. According to paragraph 4, what has recent research on obsidian tools found at Olmec sites shown?

A Obsidian’s value was understood only when Teotihuacán became an important city.

B The residents of Teotihuacán were sophisticated toolmakers.

C The residents of Teotihuacán traded obsidian with the Olmecs as early as 400 B.C. D Some of the obsidian used by the Olmecs came from the area around Teotihuacán.


7. Select the TWO answer choices that are mentioned in paragraph 5 as being features of Teotihuacán that may have attracted immigrants to the city. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

A The prosperity of the elite

B Plenty of available housing

C Opportunities for well-paid agricultural employment

D The presence of one or more religious shrines


8. In paragraph 6, the author discusses “The thriving obsidian operation,” in order to A explain why manufacturing was the main industry of Teotihuacán

B give an example of an industry that took very little time to develop in Teotihuacán

C illustrate how several factors influenced each other to make Teotihuacán a powerful and wealthy city

D explain how a successful industry can be a source of wealth and a source of conflict at the same time


9. In paragraph 1 of the passage, there is a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added.


In fact, artifacts and pottery from Teotihuacán have been discovered in sites as far away as the Mayan lowlands, the Guatemalan highlands, northern Mexico, and the Gulf Coast of Mexico.


Where would the sentence best fit?


The city of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200 –100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. (A) It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. (B) Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. (C) Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (modern Central America and Mexico). (D)

A Option A

B Option B

C Option C

D Option D


10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence.



Teotihuacán was a highly developed city in Mesoamerica that reached its peak between about A.D. 150 and 700.

Answer Choices

A The number and sophistication of the architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacán indicate the existence of centralized planning and control.

B Teotihuacán may have developed its own specific local religion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by the city’s great prosperity.

C Several factors may account for Teotihuacán’s extraordinary development, including its location, rich natural resources, irrigation potential, intelligent elite, and the misfortune of rival communities.

D As a result of its large number of religious shrines, by the first century A.D., Teotihuacán became the most influential religious center in all of Mesoamerica.

E In many important areas, from the obsidian industry to religious tourism, Teotihuacán’s success and prosperity typified the classic positive feedback cycle.

F Although many immigrants settled in Teotihuacán between A.D. 150 and 700, the increasing threat of coerced labor discouraged further settlement and limited Teotihuacán’s population growth.




Reading 2

Directions: Read the passage.

Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set.


Extinction of the Dinosaurs


Paleozoic Era 334 to 248 million years ago

Mesozoic Era 245 to 65 million years ago

─Triassic Period

─Jurassic Period

─Cretaceous Period

Cenozoic Era 65 million years ago to the present


Paragraph 1

Paleontologists have argued for a long time that the demise of the dinosaurs was caused by climatic alterations associated with slow changes in the positions of continents and seas resulting from plate tectonics. Off and on throughout the Cretaceous (the last period of the Mesozoic era, during which dinosaurs flourished), large shallow seas covered extensive areas of the continents. Data from diverse sources, including geochemical evidence preserved in seafloor sediments, indicate that the Late Cretaceous climate was milder than today’s. The days were not too hot, nor the nights too cold. The summers were not too warm, nor the winters too frigid. The shallow seas on the continents probably buffered the temperature of the nearby air, keeping it relatively constant.


Paragraph 2

At the end of the Cretaceous, the geological record shows that these seaways retreated from the continents back into the major ocean basins. No one knows why. Over a period of about 100,000 years, while the seas pulled back, climates around the world became dramatically more extreme: warmer days, cooler nights; hotter summers, colder winters. Perhaps dinosaurs could not tolerate these extreme temperature changes and became extinct.


Paragraph 3

If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? These animals are at the mercy of the climate to maintain a livable body temperature. It’s hard to understand why they would not be affected, whereas dinosaurs were left too crippled to cope, especially if, as some scientists believe, dinosaurs were warm-blooded. Critics also point out that the shallow seaways had retreated from and advanced on the continents numerous times during the Mesozoic, so why did the dinosaurs survive the climatic changes associated with the earlier fluctuations but not with this one? Although initially appealing, the hypothesis of a simple climatic change related to sea levels is insufficient to explain all the data.


Paragraph 4

Dissatisfaction with conventional explanations for dinosaur extinctions led to a surprising observation that, in turn, has suggested a new hypothesis. Many plants and animals disappear abruptly from the fossil record as one moves from layers of rock documenting the end of the Cretaceous up into rocks representing the beginning of the Cenozoic (the era after the Mesozoic). Between the last layer of Cretaceous rock and the first layer of Cenozoic rock, there is often a thin layer of clay. Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took by determining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thought they could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amount of the element iridium (Ir) it contained.


Paragraph 5

Ir has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of the planet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentially incorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. Ir is found in high concentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemical composition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombard Earth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fall to Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might have taken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay. These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have been required. However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay could not have taken one million years. So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a special explanation.


Paragraph 6

In view of these facts, scientists hypothesized that a single large asteroid, about 10 to 15 kilometers across, collided with Earth, and the resulting fallout created the boundary clay. Their calculations show that the impact kicked up a dust cloud that cut off sunlight for several months, inhibiting photosynthesis in plants; decreased surface temperatures on continents to below freezing; caused extreme episodes of acid rain; and significantly raised long-term global temperatures through the greenhouse effect. This disruption of the food chain and climate would have eradicated the dinosaurs and other organisms in less than fifty years.


Directions: Answer the questions.


1. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the Late Cretaceous climate?

A Summers were very warm and winters were very cold.

B Shallow seas on the continents caused frequent temperature changes.

C The climate was very similar to today’s climate.

D The climate did not change dramatically from season to season.


2. Why does the author mention the survival of “snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles” in paragraph 3?

A To argue that dinosaurs may have become extinct because they were not cold-blooded animals

B To question the adequacy of the hypothesis that climatic change related to sea levels caused the extinction of the dinosaurs

C To present examples of animals that could maintain a livable body temperature more easily than dinosaurs

D To support a hypothesis that these animals were not as sensitive to climate changes in the Cretaceous period as they are today


3. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true of changes in climate before the Cretaceous period and the effect of these changes on dinosaurs?

A Climate changes associated with the movement of seaways before the Cretaceous period did not cause dinosaurs to become extinct.

B Changes in climate before the Cretaceous period caused severe fluctuation in sea level, resulting in the extinction of the dinosaurs.

C Frequent changes in climate before the Cretaceous period made dinosaurs better able to maintain a livable body temperature.

D Before the Cretaceous period there were few changes in climate, and dinosaurs flourished.


4. The word “fluctuations” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A extremes

B retreats

C periods

D variations


5. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A The fossil record suggests that there was an abrupt extinction of many plants and animals at the end of the Mesozoic era.

B Few fossils of the Mesozoic era have survived in the rocks that mark the end of the Cretaceous.

C Fossils from the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic up to the beginning of the Cenozoic era have been removed from the layers of rock that surrounded them.

D Plants and animals from the Mesozoic era were unable to survive in the Cenozoic era.


6. In paragraph 4, all the following questions are answered EXCEPT:

A Why is there a layer of clay between the rocks of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic?

B Why were scientists interested in determining how long it took to deposit the layer of clay at the end of the Cretaceous?

C What was the effect of the surprising observation scientists made?

D Why did scientists want more information about the dinosaur extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous?


7. Paragraph 5 implies that a special explanation of the Ir in the boundary clay is needed because

A the Ir in microscopic meteorites reaching Earth during the Cretaceous period would have been incorporated into Earth’s core

B the Ir in the boundary clay was deposited much more than a million years ago

C the concentration of Ir in the boundary clay is higher than in microscopic meteorites

D the amount of Ir in the boundary clay is too great to have come from microscopic meteorites during the time the boundary clay was deposited


8. The word “disruption” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A exhaustion

B disturbance

C modification

D disappearance


9. In paragraph 5 of the passage, there is a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added.


Consequently, the idea that the Ir in the boundary clay came from microscopic meteorites cannot be accepted.


Where would the sentence best fit?


Ir has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of the planet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentially incorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. Ir is found in high concentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemical composition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombard Earth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fall to Earth over a given period of time, scientists can estimate how long it might have taken to deposit the observed amount of Ir in the boundary clay. (A) These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have been required. (B) However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay could not have taken one million years. (C) So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a special explanation. (D)


A Option A

B Option B

C Option C

D Option D


10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence. For a long time scientists have argued that the extinction of the dinosaurs was related to climate change.


Answer Choices

A Extreme changes in daily and seasonal climates preceded the retreat of the seas back into the major ocean basins.

B A simple climate change does not explain some important data related to the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous.

C The retreat of the seaways at the end of the Cretaceous has not been fully explained.

D The abruptness of extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous and the high concentration of Ir found in clay deposited at that time have fueled the development of a new hypothesis.

E Some scientists hypothesize that the extinction of the dinosaurs resulted from the effects of an asteroid collision with Earth.

F Boundary clay layers like the one between the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are used by scientists to determine the rate at which an extinct species declined.




Reading 3

Directions: Read the passage. Give yourself 20 minutes to complete this practice set.


The Geologic History of the Mediterranean

Paragraph 1

In 1970 geologists Kenneth J. Hsu and William B. F. Ryan were collecting research data while aboard the oceanographic research vessel Glomar Challenger. An objective of this particular cruise was to investigate the floor of the Mediterranean and to resolve questions about its geologic history. One question was related to evidence that the invertebrate fauna (animals without spines) of the Mediterranean had changed abruptly about 6 million years ago. Most of the older organisms were nearly wiped out, although a few hardy species survived. A few managed to migrate into the Atlantic. Somewhat later, the migrants returned, bringing new species with them. Why did the near extinction and migrations occur?


Paragraph 2

Another task for the Glomar Challenger’s scientists was to try to determine the origin of the domelike masses buried deep beneath the Mediterranean seafloor. These structures had been detected years earlier by echo-sounding instruments, but they had never been penetrated in the course of drilling. Were they salt domes such as are common along the United States Gulf Coast, and if so, why should there have been so much solid crystalline salt beneath the floor of the Mediterranean?


Paragraph 3

With questions such as these clearly before them, the scientists aboard the Glomar Challenger proceeded to the Mediterranean to search for the answers. On August 23, 1970, they recovered a sample. The sample consisted of pebbles of hardened sediment that had once been soft, deep-sea mud, as well as granules of gypsum1 and fragments of volcanic rock. Not a single pebble was found that might have indicated that the pebbles came from the nearby continent. In the days following, samples of solid gypsum were repeatedly brought on deck as drilling operations penetrated the seafloor. Furthermore, the gypsum was found to possess peculiarities of composition and structure that suggested it had formed on desert flats. Sediment above and below the gypsum layer contained tiny marine fossils, indicating open ocean conditions. As they drilled into the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean basin, the scientists took solid, shiny, crystalline salt from the core barrel. Interbedded with the salt were thin layers of what appeared to be windblown silt.


Paragraph 4

The time had come to formulate a hypothesis. The investigators theorized that about 20 million years ago, the Mediterranean was a broad seaway linked to the Atlantic by two narrow straits. Crustal movements closed the straits, and the landlocked Mediterranean began to evaporate. Increasing salinity caused by the evaporation resulted in the extermination of scores of invertebrate species. Only a few organisms especially tolerant of very salty conditions remained. As evaporation continued, the remaining brine (salt water) became so dense that the calcium sulfate of the hard layer was precipitated. In the central deeper part of the basin, the last of the brine evaporated to precipitate more soluble sodium chloride (salt). Later, under the weight of overlying sediments, this salt flowed plastically upward to form salt domes. Before this happened, however, the Mediterranean was a vast desert 3,000 meters deep. Then, about 5.5 million years ago came the deluge. As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean. Turbulent waters tore into the hardened salt flats, broke them up, and ground them into the pebbles observed in the first sample taken by the Challenger. As the basin was refilled, normal marine organisms returned. Soon layers of oceanic ooze began to accumulate above the old hard layer.


Paragraph 5

The salt and gypsum, the faunal changes, and the unusual gravel provided abundant evidence that the Mediterranean was once a desert.


1 gypsum: a mineral made of calcium sulfate and water


Directions: Answer the questions.


1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 1 as a change that occurred in the fauna of the Mediterranean?

A Most invertebrate species disappeared during a wave of extinctions.

B A few hardy species wiped out many of the Mediterranean’s invertebrates.

C Some invertebrates migrated to the Atlantic Ocean.

D New species of fauna populated the Mediterranean when the old migrants returned.


2. What does the author imply by saying “Not a single pebble was found that might have indicated that the pebbles came from the nearby continent”?

A The most obvious explanation for the origin of the pebbles was not supported by the evidence.

B The geologists did not find as many pebbles as they expected.

C The geologists were looking for a particular kind of pebble.

D The different pebbles could not have come from only one source.


3. Select the TWO answer choices from paragraph 3 that identify materials discovered in the deepest part of the Mediterranean basin. To receive credit, you must select TWO answers.

A Volcanic rock fragments

B Thin silt layers C Soft, deep-sea mud

D Crystalline salt


4. What is the main purpose of paragraph 3 ?

A To describe the physical evidence collected by Hsu and Ryan

B To explain why some of the questions posed earlier in the passage could not be answered by the findings of the Glomar Challenger

C To evaluate techniques used by Hsu and Ryan to explore the sea floor

D To describe the most difficult problems faced by the Glomar Challenger expedition


5. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was responsible for the evaporation of the Mediterranean’s waters?

A The movements of Earth’s crust

B The accumulation of sediment layers

C Changes in the water level of the Atlantic Ocean

D Changes in Earth’s temperature


6. The word “scores” in the passage is closest in meaning to

A members

B large numbers

C populations

D different types


7. According to paragraph 4, what caused most invertebrate species in the Mediterranean to become extinct?

A The evaporation of chemicals necessary for their survival

B Crustal movements that connected the Mediterranean to the saltier Atlantic

C The migration of new species through the narrow straits

D Their inability to tolerate the increasing salt content of the Mediterranean


8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A The Strait of Gibraltar reopened when the Mediterranean and the Atlantic became connected and the cascades of water from one sea to the other caused crustal adjustments and faulting.

B The Mediterranean was dramatically refilled by water from the Atlantic when crustal adjustments and faulting opened the Strait of Gibraltar, the place where the two seas are joined.

C The cascades of water from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean were not as spectacular as the crustal adjustments and faulting that occurred when the Strait of Gibraltar was connected to those seas.

D As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting and the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar, the Atlantic and Mediterranean were connected and became a single sea with spectacular cascades of water between them.


9. In paragraph 2 of the passage, there is a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added. Thus, scientists had information about the shape of the domes but not about their chemical composition and origin. Where would the sentence best fit? (A) Another task for the Glomar Challenger’s scientists was to try to determine the origin of the domelike masses buried deep beneath the Mediterranean seafloor. (B) These structures had been detected years earlier by echo-sounding instruments, but they had never been penetrated in the course of drilling. (C) Were they salt domes such as are common along the United States Gulf Coast, and if so, why should there have been so much solid crystalline salt beneath the floor of the Mediterranean? (D)

A Option A

B Option B

C Option C

D Option D


10. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Write your answer choices in the spaces where they belong. You can either write the letter of your answer choice or you can copy the sentence.


An expedition to the Mediterranean answered some long-standing questions about the ocean’s history.


Answer Choices

A The Glomar Challenger expedition investigated changes in invertebrate fauna and some unusual geologic features.

B Researchers collected fossils to determine which new species migrated from the Atlantic with older species.

C Scientists aboard the Glomar Challenger were the first to discover the existence of domelike masses underneath the seafloor.

D Samples recovered from the expedition revealed important differences in chemical composition and fossil distribution among the sediment layers.

E Evidence collected by the Glomar Challenger supports geologists’ beliefs that the Mediterranean had evaporated and become a desert, before it refilled with water.

F Mediterranean salt domes formed after crustal movements opened the straits between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, and the Mediterranean refilled with water.


CONTINUE IMMEDIATELY TO THE NEXT SECTION




Listening Section

PLEASE NOTE THIS SECTION HAS A SEPARATE AUDIO RECORDING FOR EACH OF THE 5 LISTENING TASKS. EACH RECORDING IS BETWEEN 8 AND 9 MINUTES LONG. THE AUDIO INCLUDES SILENCE AFTER THE AUDIO LECTURE OR AFTER THE AUDIO CONVERSATION.

41 minutes total

5 situations

8 minutes each



Listening 1

Health Club


https://voca.ro/11C0UX4v6AQL

Directions: Listen and respond to the questions. You may notes while you listen. You will hear the audio only once. Just before the end of the audio you will hear, “Please stop”. Stop and move to the next listening.


Directions: Answer the questions.

1. What is the conversation mainly about?

A Preparing for a test

B A strategy for attracting customers

C Business opportunities in the field of health

D Differences between two business models


2. What does the professor imply about the upcoming test?

A It will not contain questions about the health-club model.

B It will ask about ways to improve the customer’s self-image.

C It will require students to discuss marketing strategies for libraries.

D It will not require students to give examples of successful businesses.


3. Based on the conversation, indicate whether each of the following is offered by health clubs. Choose the correct boxes.


YesNoLow membership fees High quality facilities Exercise classes Positive Self-image Special Presentations



4. What does the professor imply about public libraries?

A They tend to be more popular than health clubs.

B They cannot offer as many services as health clubs.

C They should not spend money on high-quality equipment.

D They need to give greater emphasis to strategic marketing.


5. Part of the conversation is repeated below. Read it and answer the question.


Professor I mean, with a health club, you might think they would have trouble attracting customers, right?

Student Well, I know when I pass by a health club and I see all those people working out … exercising … I’d just as soon walk on by!


Why does the student say this:

“Well, I know when I pass by a health club and I see all those people working out exercising … I’d just as soon walk on by! “


A To introduce a personal story about exercising

B To point out a flaw in the health-club model

C To give an example that supports the professor’s point

D To explain why he disagrees with the professor



Listening 2

Glacier Movement

https://voca.ro/1lSgZwMHE8b2

Directions: Listen and respond to the questions. You may notes while you listen. You will hear the audio only once. Just before the end of the audio you will hear, “Please stop”. Stop and move to the next listening.



Directions: Answer the questions.


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

A Explanations of how glaciers move

B Landscape changes caused by glacial movement

C Climate changes that influence glacial movement

D Causes of glacial formation


2. The professor discusses the process of basal slip. Put the steps in the correct order. Answer Choices A Friction between the glacier and bedrock is reduced.

B A liquid layer forms at the base of the glacier. C The glacier begins to slide. D Pressure is increased on the ice.


3. What factors are involved in the amount of deformation a glacier undergoes? Choose 2 answers.

A Thickness of glacial ice

B The hardness of glacial ice

C The amount of water beneath the glacial ice

D The temperature of the glacial ice


4. What does the professor say about the speed of glaciers?

A It affects the amount of glacial ice that forms.

B It can be fast enough for movement to be noticeable.

C It is reduced by cracks in the ice.

D It is unusually high in colder regions.


5. What is the professor explaining when he says this: Professor But ice is also plastic. It can change shape without breaking. If you leave, for example, a bar of ice supported only at one end, the unsupported end , will deform under its own weight. …

A A characteristic of ice that is related to glacial movement

B How scientists first discovered that glaciers could move

C That factors like temperature can affect the strength of ice

D Why deformation is the most common type of glacial movement


6. Part of the lecture is repeated below. Read it and answer the question.


Professor

Now I’d like to touch briefly on extension and compression. Your textbook includes these as types , as a particular type , of glacial movement, but you’ll see that there are as many textbooks that omit it as a type of movement as include it. And I might not include it right now if it weren’t in your textbook.


What does the professor imply about compression and extension?

A He believes it accounts for a great deal of glacial movement.

B He thinks it is a slower type of glacial movement than basal slip.

C He is not convinced that it is a type of glacial movement.

D He does not agree that it causes fissure in glaciers.


Listening 3

Women Artists of Late Nineteenth-Century Paris


https://voca.ro/1873S7M3NIPU

Directions: Listen and respond to the questions. You may notes while you listen. You will hear the audio only once. Just before the end of the audio you will hear, “Please stop”. Stop and move to the next listening.


Women Artists of Late Nineteenth-Century Paris


Directions: Answer the questions.


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

A Why the Salon exhibitions became popular among women artists in Paris

B Why French society did not approve of art schools for women

C How opportunities for women artists in Paris improved D How women artists in Paris cooperated with one another


2. What point does the professor make about Julian when he mentions that Julian’s art school offered some classes only for women?

A Julian’s school was the first art school in Paris to offer women-only classes.

B Julian wanted to encourage the distinctive style of women in Paris.

C Julian viewed himself as a social reformer.

D Julian possessed outstanding business skills.


3. What does the professor emphasize as one benefit of competition in women’s classes?

A Women gained more confidence in their artistic abilities.

B Women became instructors in private art studios.

C Women were able to sell their paintings for large amounts of money.

D Women created new styles of painting.


4. According to the professor, what were two ways that the situation of women artists had changed by the end of the nineteenth century in Paris? Choose 2 answers.

A Women and men took art classes together.

B Women artists played a greater role in the Salon exhibitions.

C More schools were established by women artists.

D Fewer women artists were traveling to Paris.


5. What does the professor imply about Bashkirtseff’s painting In the Studio?

A It was one of many paintings that depicted a women’s studio.

B It did not bring Bashkirtseff recognition for her artistic ability.

C It was criticized for an unrealistic depiction of women artists.

D It was beneficial for both Bashkirtseff and the school where she studied.


6. Part of the lecture is repeated below. Read it and answer the question.


Female student

It had a lot of art schools and artists who taught painting. There were classes for women artists. Those were a good places to go to study art.


Professor

If you wanted to become an artist, Paris was not a good place to go, Paris was the place to go.


What does the professor mean when he says this?


Professor If you wanted to become an artist, Paris was not a good place to go , Paris was the place to go.


A Paris was a popular place to visit but not the best place to study art.

B Paris was the most important place for an artist to study and work.

C Living in Paris was difficult for women artists from other countries.

D Studying in Paris was beneficial for some artists, but not for others.



Listening 4

Update from Basketball Coach


https://voca.ro/14WDWmGJXYQj

Directions: Listen and respond to the questions. Take notes while you listen you will hear the audio only once. Just before the end of the audio you will hear, “Please stop”. Stop and move to the next listening.


Directions: Answer the questions.

1. What are the speakers mainly discussing?

A How the woman should prepare for the next game

B The woman’s responsibilities as team captain

C Things that happened while the woman was away

D The style of the new team uniforms


2. Who is buying new jackets for the team?

A The coach

B The captain of the team

C A former player

D A group of basketball fans


3. Why is the woman surprised to learn that she has been chosen as the new team captain? Choose 2 answers.

A She is not the best player on the team.

B Her teammates did not tell her about the decision.

C She does not have many friends on the team.

D She has missed a lot of practices.


4. Read part of the conversation again. Then answer the question. Female student I’m sorry I had to miss practice, though. I feel bad about that. Male coach Family’s very important. What does the coach mean when he says this: Male coach Family’s very important.

A He hopes the woman’s family is doing well.

B He would like to meet the woman’s family.

C The woman should spend more time with her family.

D The woman had a good reason for missing practice.


5. Why does the coach say this:


Male coach

Good. That’s all the news there is. I think that’s it for now.


A He wants to know if the woman understood his point.

B He wants the woman to act immediately.

C He is preparing to change the topic.

D He is ready to end the conversation.



Listening 5

The Moonstone

https://voca.ro/1e9gyAHILFqK


Directions: Listen and respond to the questions. You may notes while you listen. You will hear the audio only once. Just before the end of the audio you will hear, “Please stop”. Stop and move to the next listening.



Directions: Answer the questions.


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

A A comparison of two types of detective novels

B Ways in which detective novels have changed over time

C The Moonstone as a model for later detective novels

D Flaws that can be found in the plot of The Moonstone


2. In what way is The Moonstone different from earlier works featuring a detective?

A In its unusual ending

B In its unique characters

C In its focus on a serious crime

D In its greater length


3. According to the professor, what do roses in The Moonstone represent?

A A key clue that leads to the solving of the mystery

B A relief and comfort to the detective

C Romance between the main characters

D Brilliant ideas that occur to the detective


4. Why does the professor mention a smeared bit of paint in a doorway in The Moonstone?

A To describe a mistake that Sergeant Cuff has made

B To show how realistically the author describes the crime scene

C To exemplify a pattern repeated in many other detective stories

D To illustrate the superior techniques used by the police


5. What can be inferred about the professor when he says this: Male professor , it’s hard at this juncture to read this novel and realize that no one had ever done that before, because it all seems so strikingly familiar.

A He is impressed by the novel’s originality.

B He is concerned that students may find the novel difficult to read.

C He is bored by the novel’s descriptions of ordinary events.

D He is eager to write a book about a less familiar subject.




TAKE A 10 MINUTE BREAK FOR WATER,

TO STRETCH YOUR LEGS, TO USE THE RESTROOM.


Speaking Section

PLEASE TURN ON THE AUDIO RECORDING PROVIDED. YOU DO NOT NEED TO DO ANY MANUAL TIMING IN THIS SECTION.


17 minutes

4 tasks

Start audio.

https://voca.ro/1kzlDHngl2Zx


Speaking Task 1


Some people enjoy taking risks and trying new things.Others are not adventurous. They are cautious and prefer to avoid danger. Which behavior do you think is better? Explain why.


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Speaking Task 2

Sculpture Courses to Be Discontinued


University administrators announced yesterday that the sculpture program, a division of the art department, will be eliminated. “The main reason is a lack of student interest,” reported one administrator. “Although the number of art students has increased, fewer and fewer art majors are taking sculpture classes.” Furthermore, the department’s only sculpture professor is retiring this year. “Given the art department’s limited budget,” the administrator explained, “it just doesn’t make sense to hire a new full-time professor to teach sculpture for only a handful of students.”

The woman expresses her opinion of the university’s plan. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.



Speaking Task 3

Revealing Coloration


Many animals use coloration to protect themselves from predators. One defensive strategy involving the use of coloration is what is known as revealing coloration. Animals employing this strategy have an area of bright color on some part of their body; this bright color is usually hidden from predators’ view. When approached by a predator, the animal suddenly reveals the area of bright color; this unexpected display of color startles or confuses the predator and provides the would-be prey with an opportunity to escape.


Using the examples of the peanut bug and the morpho butterfly, explain the concept of revealing coloration.



Speaking Task 4


Using the points and examples from the lecture, explain the two pricing strategies described by the professor.





Writing Section

YOU WILL NEED TO TIME THIS SECTION. YOU MAY USE A TIMER WITH AN ALARM SET AT 50 MINUTES.

50 minutes

2 tasks

Integrated writing task (20 minutes)

Read a short passage and listen to a short lecture

Independent writing task (30 minutes)



Writing Practice Set 1 (Integrated): Passage, Lecture, and Question


Play the audio recording and follow the instructions. https://voca.ro/19aBLQ8MI8m5


Directions: Give yourself 3 minutes to read the passage.


In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as “eco-certified.” Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive eco-certification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.


First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the eco-certification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled “new” or “improved,” American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.


Second, eco-certified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn eco-certification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers. American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain eco-certification.


Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case , American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.



Summarize the points made in the lecture. Explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.


Writing Task 1

Please write here.

Writing Task 2

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television advertising directed toward young children (aged two to five) should not be allowed. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


Writing Task 2

Please write here.

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